Amblyopia Also called “Lazy Eye”, amblyopia occurs when the brain suppresses the images from one or both eyes, resulting in reduced acuity and loss of 3D vision.
Anterior Segment Dysgenesis A genetic developmental disorder of the front part of the eye (anterior segment). Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) disorders can affect the cornea, iris, and/or lens.For example, the iris might attach to the cornea in places.
Aphakia Without the natural lens of the eye.A person could be born without a lens (due to Anterior segment dysgenesis, for example), or have their lens removed during cataract surgery and not be replaced with an artificial lens (IOL).
Astigmatism A distortion in vision caused by an abnormality in the curvature of the cornea and/or the lens. On a prescription, the amount of astigmatism is shown in the CYL column, and the angle of distortion is shown in the AXIS column.
Cataracts A cataract is any cloudiness or area of obstruction in the natural lens of the eye. There are many types and causes of cataracts. Some cataracts are small and do not interfere with vision. Other cataracts are large, causing severe vision loss, and need surgical removal.
Coloboma A coloboma is a congenital defect involving the incomplete formation of the structure of the eye, leading to a missing piece or gap in that structure.A coloboma can affect one or both eyes, and structures involved may include the eyelid, iris, lens, optic nerve, and/or retina.
Congenital Occurring at the time of birth.May have a genetic or environmental cause.
EUA Exam Under Anesthesia. The child is placed under general anesthesia for a full examination of the eyes, including measuring the IOP and checking internal structures of the eye, that cannot be evaluated while awake. Foveal Hypoplasia A condition in which the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye) does not develop normally before birth and during infancy.
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a group of diseases that causes damage to the optic nerve, which often occurs when the eye pressure (IOP) is too high. Eyes constantly make a fluid called aqueous humor, in the front of the eye. As the eye creates new fluid, the same amount should drain out, keeping the eye pressure stable. The pressure can become too high if there is a problem with the drainage system, with not enough aqueous draining out. Normal pressure is generally between 10 and 21 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). There are many types and causes of glaucoma, including normal tension glaucoma, when the pressure appears to be within normal range.
Goldmann Applanation tonometer An instrument that is used in a clinical setting, by an eye professional, to measure intraocular pressure. It is considered to be the gold standard instrument for measurement of IOP. The doctor puts a flourescein eye drop in the patient's eye, and gently touches the cornea with the Goldmann®, which glows with a blue light, to read the pressure.
Icare rebound tonometer The Icare® tonometer is a portable handheld tonometer based on a measuring principle known as rebound technology. A light weight probe is used to make momentary and gentle contact with the cornea, to obtain an eye pressure reading, and requires no numbing drops.
IOL An intraocular lens is an artificial, plastic lens placed inside the eye that the focusing power for the eye. It replaces the natural lens that has been surgically removed, usually as part of cataract surgery.
IOP Intraocular Pressure is the fluid pressure inside the eye, measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).Normal pressure is considered to be between 10mmHg and 21mmHg.
Leukocoria Leukocoria means "white pupil." It occurs when the pupil is white rather than black. It is one of the signs of retinoblastoma, a childhood eye cancer that needs immediate treatment.Leukocoria can also occur in children with cataracts, in children born with PHPV/PFV, and in premature babies who received oxygen therapy and have a diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity.
Microphthalmia Small, underdeveloped eye. Congenital disorder of an abnormally small eyeball, often occurs with other developmental eye disorders. A blind microphthalmic eye may require a painted scleral shell, created by an ocularist, to keep facial symmetry as the child grows. It is often unilateral, occurring in one eye, but may occur in both eyes. For unilateral microphthalmia, the scleral shell will be enlarged regularly to keep symmetry with the natural eye.
Nystagmus Shaky eye, ‘dancing’ eye. Nystagmus is an involuntary, shaking, “to and fro” movement of the eyes that can cause a decrease in visual acuity, especially when tired. These movements are typically in horizontal or vertical directions. Congenital nystagmus is usually noticed within a few months of birth, and is normally of a pendular pattern. Most children with nystagmus have a null point, a position they can hold the eye fairly steady, where the nystagmus movements are dampened. Children will often turn their heads to a specific posture, in order to use the null point and get the best vision.
Ocularist A technician/artist with at least five years (10,000 hours) of training, who fits, shapes, and paints prostheses for eyes, including scleral shells.
Pediatric Ophthalmologist A medical and surgical doctor who specializes in the care of children’s eyes, and eye diseases that affect children. They also treat adult strabismus patients.
PHPV/PFV Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also known as persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), is a rare congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that results in a vascularized membrane, remnants of the hyaloid artery, being still present behind the lens. Commonly unilateral, affecting one eye. Often presents with of leukocoria ("white pupil"), and can also involve microphthalmia, congenital cataracts, retinal detachment, strabismus and sometimes glaucoma.
Punctal Occlusion Involves closing the tear duct with a finger so that the eye drop doesn’t enter the bloodstream and cause side effects throughout the body.Punctal occlusion for three minutes is strongly advised when using beta blocker eye drops, such as Cosopt or Timolol.
Phthisis Bulbi, phthisical eye A condition of the eyeball when the eye loses function and shrinks in size.
Scleral shell An artificial painted acrylic ocular prosthesis, made by an ocularist, that sits over a blind or phthisical eye to make it look like a real eye. People with scleral shells get a new one approximately every five years, and have them polished twice a year. Children may need more-frequent replacements and adjustments.
Strabismus Strabismus is a visual problem in which the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions. One eye may look straight ahead, while the other eye turns inward, outward, upward, or downward.
Tonometry The method used to determine intraocular pressure (IOP). The medical device used is called a tonometer, and there are various types, most of which require an eye drop to numb the eye. The Goldmann applanation tonometer is considered the gold standard for in-clinic use, and there are various hand-held tonometers, including the Icare rebound tonometer, which does not require an eye drop.